Web accessibility is the process of making websites, digital content, tools, and technologies accessible to people with disabilities.

It is the inclusive practice of ensuring that people with disabilities can have full and equal access to information online.

Accessibility aims to cater to people of different abilities, like:

  • Visual Impairments
  • Physical Impairment
  • Hearing Impairment
  • Cognitive Impairment
  • Learning Impairment

Web Content Accessibility Guidelines

The World Wide Consortium (W3C) has created the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines which defines the list of accessibility standards. The guidelines are classified under 4 principles:

  • Perceivable — Information and user interface components must be presentable to users in ways they can perceive.
  • Operable — User interface components and navigation must be operable.
  • Understandable — Information and the operation of user interface must be understandable.
  • Robust — Content is robust and interpreted reliably by a wide variety of assistive technologies.

Here is the ultimate guide to WCAG 2.1 Level AA and AAA

WCAG 2.1 Principle 1: Perceivable

Web content is available to the senses – sight, hearing, and/or touch.

Guideline 1.3: Adaptable: Create content that can be presented in different ways without losing information or structure.

1.3.4 Orientation Level AA

  • Do not restrict orientation of web content to only portrait or landscape.
  • Don’t restrict your application or website to just work in landscape or portrait mode.
  • Honor device settings to display the application in landscape or portrait mode.

1.3.5 Identify Input Purpose Level AA

  • Make sure that input fields that collect certain types of user information have an appropriate autocomplete attribute defined.

1.3.6 Identify Purpose Level AAA

  • Use HTML5 regions or ARIA landmarks to identify page regions.
  • Identify the purpose of interface components to enhance HTML semantics with ARIA.

Guideline 1.4: Distinguishable: Make it easier for users to see and hear content including separating foreground from background.

1.4.10 Reflow Level AA

  • Avoid horizontal scrolling if content width is 320 pixels.
  • Exempt content that requires horizontal scrolling, like data tables and complex images.

1.4.11 Non-text Contrast Level AA

  • Contrast ratio of 3:1 is necessary to differentiate graphical objects.
  • Contrast ration is 3:1 for the various states of author-customized interactive components.

1.4.12 Text Spacing Level AA

  • If paragraph spacing is 2 times the font size, there is no loss of content or functionality. Text line height/spacing is 1.5 times the font size. Word spacing is .16 times the font size, and letter spacing to .12 times the font size.

1.4.13 Content on hover or focus Level AA

  • Dismissable: Make sure the new content is dismissed without moving the pointer or keyboard focus.
  • Hoverable: The user can move the pointer to the new content without the content disappearing.
  • Persistent: Make sure new content is visible, till the pointer or keyboard focus moves from the triggering control.

WCAG 2.1 Principle 2: Operable

Interface forms, controls, and navigation are operable

Guideline 2.1: Keyboard Accessible: Make all functionality available from a keyboard

2.1.4 Character Key Shortcuts Level A

  • User can disable key command if a keyboard shortcut uses printable character keys.

Guideline 2.2: Enough time: Provide users enough time to read and use content

2.2.6 Timeouts Level AAA

  • Warn users of any timeouts resulting in data loss.

Guideline 2.3: Seizures and Physical Reactions: Do not design content in a way that is known to cause seizures or physical reactions

2.3.3 Animation from Interactions Level AAA

  • Users can disable non-essential animation and movement triggered by user interaction.

Guideline 2.5: Input Modalities: Make it easier for users to operate functionality through various inputs beyond keyboard.

2.5.1 Pointer Gestures Level A

  • Use single-gestures to perform the functionality instead of multi-point gestures.

2.5.2 Pointer Cancellation Level A

  • Avoid non-essential down-event activation when clicking or tapping to prevent inadvertent activation of controls.
  • Use on-click, on-mouse-up, or a mechanism to abort or undo the previous action.

2.5.3 Label in Name Level A

  • If an interface component presents text the accessible name (label, aria-label, etc.) for that component must include the visible text.

2.5.4 Motion Actuation Level A

  • Disable any functionality triggered by moving the device or by user movement. Equivalent functionality is provided via standard controls like buttons.

2.5.5 Target Size Level AAA

  • Provide alternative target for clickable targets of 44 by 44 pixels in size.

2.5.6 Concurrent Input Mechanisms Level AAA

  • Make sure the content does not restrict input to a specific modality, such as touch-only or keyboard-only.

WCAG 2.1 Principle 4: Robust

Content must be robust enough that it can be interpreted by a wide variety of user agents, including assistive technologies.

4.1.3 Status Messages Level AA

  • Use an ARA alert to announce status messages to users.

Who we are?

codemantra is a leading Intelligent Document Processing (IDP) Solutions Provider. Its AI-driven platform automates digital document accessibility compliance. It captures, classifies, and extracts data; and transforms documents to the desired output format.

How codemantra helps to achieve WCAG compliance?

codemantra’s accessibilityInsight remediates PDFs by auto-tagging document elements, set logical reading order, adding meta descriptions and bookmarks. It allows the user to add custom alt text to images, equations, and formulas.

We provide everything from self-help tools, audits, remediation, and implementation support to help you stay on top of PDF accessibility challenges with a very cost-effective solution.

Contact us at 1 (800) 769-9715 or Email To learn more on how to make your PDF documents accessible and compliant with PDF U/A and WCAG 2.1 Level AA standards.

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